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In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentina. The country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe, with Italy and Spain providing the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's history was dominated by periods of internal political conflict between Federalists and Unitarians and between civilian and military factions.


Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay

Natural Resources

fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium, arable land

Population - distribution

one-third of the population lives in Buenos Aires; pockets of agglomeration occur throughout the northern and central parts of the country; Patagonia to the south remains sparsely populated

Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French, indigenous (Mapudungun, Quechua)
BUENOS AIRES (capital) 15.18 million; Cordoba 1.511 million; Rosario 1.381 million; Mendoza 1.009 million; San Miguel de Tucuman 910,000; La Plata 846,000 (2015)
Conventional long form
Argentine Republic
Conventional short form
Local long form
Republica Argentina
Local short form
presidential republic
Buenos Aires
Geographic coordinates
34 36 S, 58 22 W
Time difference
UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Although one of the world's wealthiest countries 100 years ago, Argentina suffered during most of the 20th century from recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal and current account deficits, high inflation, mounting external debt, and capital flight. In 2016, the World Bank downgraded Argentina from a high-income to upper-middle-income economy, on par with Columbia.
External debt stocks
US$ 159,693,583,000
Total tax rate (% of commercial profits)
Real Interest Rate
Manufacturing, value added (% of GDP)
Current Account Balance
US$ -16,805,580,655
Labor Force, Total
Employment in Agriculture
Employment in Industry
Employment in Services
Unemployment Rate
Imports of goods and services
US$ 73,162,700,768
Exports of goods and services
US$ 69,385,052,863
Total Merchandise Trade
FDI, net inflows
US$ 11,758,994,011
Commercial Service Exports
US$ 13,735,139,795
sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock
food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
soybeans and derivatives, petroleum and gas, vehicles, corn, wheat
Brazil 17.8%, China 9.1%, US 6%, Chile 4.2% (2015)
machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and natural gas, organic chemicals, plastics
Brazil 21.9%, China 19.7%, US 12.9%, Germany 5.2% (2015)
Country Risk Rating
Political and economic uncertainties and an occasionally difficult business environment can affect corporate payment behavior. Corporate default probability is appreciable.
Business Climate Rating
The business environment is mediocre. The availability and the reliability of corporate financial information vary widely. Debt collection can sometimes be difficult. The institutional framework has a few troublesome weaknesses. Intercompany transactions run appreciable risks in the unstable, largely inefficient environments rated B.
  • Natural, agricultural, energy and mineral resources
  • Education level greater than the regional average
  • Qualified labor
  • Return of the country onto the international markets
  • Dependency on the prices of agricultural commodities
  • Insufficient capital investment in energy and transport
  • Inflation rate still high

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