All the tools and resources you need to export your goods across the world

Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile while an indigenous people, the Mapuche, inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, it did not achieve decisive victory over the Spanish until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia to win its present northern regions. In the 1880s, the Chilean central government gained control over the central and southern regions inhabited by the Mapuche. After a series of elected governments, the three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 by a military coup led by General Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a democratically-elected president was inaugurated in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.


Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Natural Resources

copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower

Population - distribution

90% of the population is located in the middle third of the country around the capital of Santiago; the far north (anchored by the Atacama Desert) and the extreme south are relatively underpopulated

Spanish 99.5% (official), English 10.2%, indigenous 1% (includes Mapudungun, Aymara, Quechua, Rapa Nui), other 2.3%, unspecified 0.2%
SANTIAGO (capital) 6.507 million; Valparaiso 907,000; Concepcion 816,000 (2015)
Conventional long form
Republic of Chile
Conventional short form
Local long form
Republica de Chile
Local short form
presidential republic
Geographic coordinates
33 27 S, 70 40 W
Time difference
UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time
+1hr, begins second Sunday in August; ends second Sunday in May; note - Punta Arenas observes DST throughout the year
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade and a reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. Exports of goods and services account for approximately one-third of GDP, with commodities making up some 60% of total exports. Copper is Chile’s top export and provides 20% of government revenue.
External debt stocks
US$ 96,244,880,000
Total tax rate (% of commercial profits)
Real Interest Rate
Manufacturing, value added (% of GDP)
Current Account Balance
US$ -3,574,377,981
Labor Force, Total
Employment in Agriculture
Employment in Industry
Employment in Services
Unemployment Rate
Imports of goods and services
US$ 68,237,444,820
Exports of goods and services
US$ 70,313,591,472
Total Merchandise Trade
FDI, net inflows
US$ 12,225,431,089
Commercial Service Exports
US$ 9,144,115,492
grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber
copper, lithium, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
copper, fruit, fish products, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine
China 26.3%, US 13.2%, Japan 8.5%, South Korea 6.5%, Brazil 4.9% (2015)
petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles, natural gas
China 23.4%, US 18.8%, Brazil 7.8%, Argentina 4% (2015)
Country Risk Rating
Changes in generally good but somewhat volatile political and economic environment can affect corporate payment behavior. A basically secure business environment can nonetheless give rise to occasional difficulties for companies. Corporate default probability is quite acceptable on average.
Business Climate Rating
The business environment is good. When available, corporate financial information is reliable. Debt collection is reasonably efficient. Institutions generally perform efficiently. Intercompany transactions usually run smoothly in the relatively stable environment rated A2.
  • Mining (leading copper producer), agricultural, fishery, and forestry resources
  • Numerous free-trade agreements
  • Favorable business climate, political and institutional stability
  • International companies operating in distribution, air transport, and paper
  • Member of the OECD and the Pacific Alliance
  • Open economy, vulnerable to external shocks
  • Dependence on copper and the Chinese economy
  • Persistent external deficit
  • Vulnerability of the road network and electricity grid, and high energy prices
  • Exposure to weather and earthquake risks
  • Income disparity and poor education system

Our site saves small pieces of text information (cookies) on your device in order to deliver better content and for statistical purposes. By browsing our website you grant us permission to store that information on your device. For more information check our Terms and Conditions.