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The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences complicated the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. A constitutional referendum in 2005 cancelled a 19-year ban on multi-party politics and lifted presidential term limits.


East-Central Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Natural Resources

copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold

Population - distribution

population density is relatively high in comparison to other African nations; most of the population is concentrated in the central and southern parts of the country, particularly along the shores of Lake Victoria and Lake Albert; the northeast is least populated

English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
KAMPALA (capital) 1.936 million (2015)
Conventional long form
Republic of Uganda
Conventional short form
Local long form
Local short form
presidential republic
Geographic coordinates
0 19 N, 32 33 E
Time difference
UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing more than one-third of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Uganda has a small industrial sector that is dependent on imported inputs like oil and equipment. Overall productivity is hampered by a number of supply-side constraints, including underinvestment in an agricultural sector that continues to rely on rudimentary technology. Industrial growth is impeded by high-costs due to poor infrastructure, low levels of private investment, and the depreciation of the Ugandan shilling.
External debt stocks
US$ 5,756,040,000
Total tax rate (% of commercial profits)
Real Interest Rate
Manufacturing, value added (% of GDP)
Current Account Balance
US$ -2,352,636,981
Labor Force, Total
Employment in Agriculture
Employment in Industry
Employment in Services
Unemployment Rate
Imports of goods and services
US$ 7,074,503,989
Exports of goods and services
US$ 4,500,769,335
Total Merchandise Trade
FDI, net inflows
US$ 1,057,301,392
Commercial Service Exports
US$ 1,919,200,399
coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, and fish
sugar processing, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold
Rwanda 10.8%, UAE 9.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 9.8%, Kenya 9.8%, Italy 5.8%, Netherlands 4.9%, Germany 4.8%, China 4.1% (2015)
capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
Kenya 16.5%, UAE 15.6%, India 13.5%, China 13.1% (2015)
Country Risk Rating
A very uncertain political and economic outlook and a business environment with many troublesome weaknesses can have a significant impact on corporate payment behavior. Corporate default probability is high.
Business Climate Rating
The business environment is very difficult. Corporate financial information is rarely available and when available usually unreliable. The legal system makes debt collection very unpredictable. The institutional framework has very serious weaknesses. Intercompany transactions can thus be very difficult to manage in the highly risky environments rated D.
  • Significant natural resources: fertile land, oil reserves, hydroelectric potential
  • Diversification, especially of the agri-food sector
  • International support for infrastructure projects
  • Debt, primarily on concessional terms
  • Poverty, inequalities
  • Inadequate infrastructure
  • Insecurity in the border regions (DRC and South Sudan)
  • Slow progress on governance (particularly control of corruption)

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