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In 1783, the Sunni Al-Khalifa family took power in Bahrain. In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in 1971. A steady decline in oil production and reserves since 1970 prompted Bahrain to take steps to diversify its economy, in the process developing successful petroleum processing and refining, aluminum production, and hospitality and retail sectors, and also to become a leading regional banking center, especially with respect to Islamic finance. Bahrain's small size, central location among Gulf countries, and proximity to Iran require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors.


Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

Recursos Naturais

oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls

Distribuição da População

smallest population of the Gulf States, but urbanization rate exceeds 90%; largest settlement concentration is found on the far northern end of the island in and around Manamah and Al Muharraq

Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu
MANAMA (capital) 411,000 (2015)
Designação longa convencional
Kingdom of Bahrain
Forma longa local
Mamlakat al Bahrayn
Forma curto local
Al Bahrayn
constitutional monarchy
Coordenadas Geográficas
26 14 N, 50 34 E
Fuso horário
UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Low oil prices have generated a budget deficit of at least a $4 billion deficit in 2016, nearly 14% of GDP. Bahrain has few options for covering this deficit, with meager foreign assets and a constrained borrowing ability. In the last year the three major US credit agencies downgraded Bahrain’s sovereign debt rating to “junk” status, citing persistently low oil prices and the government’s inability to more effectively cut spending.
Acções de dívida externa
US$ 10.729.125.000
Taxa de imposto total (% dos lucros empresa)
Taxa de juro real
Produção, valor acrescentado (% PIB)
Saldo Corrente
US$ 1.123.670.213
Força de trabalho, total
Emprego na Agricultura
Emprego na Industria
Emprego nos Serviços
Taxa de Desemprego
Importação de Produtos e Serviços
US$ 22.303.191.489
Exportação de Produtos e Serviços
US$ 26.327.127.660
Total Comércio de Mercadorias
IDE, entradas líquidas
US$ -1.462.765.957
Exportações de serviços comerciais
US$ 3.335.106.383
fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish
petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, Islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism
petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles
Saudi Arabia 3.5%, UAE 2.3%, US 2.2% (2015)
crude oil, machinery, chemicals
Saudi Arabia 28.9%, US 9.4%, China 7.5%, Japan 6.6%, Australia 5.1%, India 4.9% (2015)
Índice de Risco do País
Political and economic uncertainties and an occasionally difficult business environment can affect corporate payment behavior. Corporate default probability is appreciable.
Classificação de Clima de Negócios
The business environment is acceptable. Corporate financial information is sometimes neither readily available nor sufficiently reliable. Debt collection is not always efficient and the institutional framework has shortcomings. Intercompany transactions may thus run into appreciable difficulties in the acceptable but occasionally unstable environments rated A4.
  • Fairly diversified (oil, gas, aluminum, petrochemicals, financial services, tourism) and open economy
  • Presence of the main American naval base in the region (U.S. 5th Fleet)
  • Diminishing hydrocarbon reserves and exposure to their price fluctuation
  • Very acute socio-political tensions between the Sunnite minority in power and the majority Shiite population
  • Uncertain regional geopolitical environment
  • Dependence on foreign labor

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