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Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile while an indigenous people, the Mapuche, inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, it did not achieve decisive victory over the Spanish until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia to win its present northern regions. In the 1880s, the Chilean central government gained control over the central and southern regions inhabited by the Mapuche. After a series of elected governments, the three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 by a military coup led by General Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a democratically-elected president was inaugurated in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.


Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Recursos Naturais

copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower

Distribuição da População

90% of the population is located in the middle third of the country around the capital of Santiago; the far north (anchored by the Atacama Desert) and the extreme south are relatively underpopulated

Spanish 99.5% (official), English 10.2%, indigenous 1% (includes Mapudungun, Aymara, Quechua, Rapa Nui), other 2.3%, unspecified 0.2%
SANTIAGO (capital) 6.507 million; Valparaiso 907,000; Concepcion 816,000 (2015)
Designação longa convencional
Republic of Chile
Forma longa local
Republica de Chile
Forma curto local
presidential republic
Coordenadas Geográficas
33 27 S, 70 40 W
Fuso horário
UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Horário de verão
+1hr, begins second Sunday in August; ends second Sunday in May; note - Punta Arenas observes DST throughout the year
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade and a reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. Exports of goods and services account for approximately one-third of GDP, with commodities making up some 60% of total exports. Copper is Chile’s top export and provides 20% of government revenue.
Acções de dívida externa
US$ 96.244.880.000
Taxa de imposto total (% dos lucros empresa)
Taxa de juro real
Produção, valor acrescentado (% PIB)
Saldo Corrente
US$ -3.574.377.981
Força de trabalho, total
Emprego na Agricultura
Emprego na Industria
Emprego nos Serviços
Taxa de Desemprego
Importação de Produtos e Serviços
US$ 68.237.444.820
Exportação de Produtos e Serviços
US$ 70.313.591.472
Total Comércio de Mercadorias
IDE, entradas líquidas
US$ 12.225.431.089
Exportações de serviços comerciais
grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber
copper, lithium, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
copper, fruit, fish products, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine
China 26.3%, US 13.2%, Japan 8.5%, South Korea 6.5%, Brazil 4.9% (2015)
petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles, natural gas
China 23.4%, US 18.8%, Brazil 7.8%, Argentina 4% (2015)
Índice de Risco do País
Changes in generally good but somewhat volatile political and economic environment can affect corporate payment behavior. A basically secure business environment can nonetheless give rise to occasional difficulties for companies. Corporate default probability is quite acceptable on average.
Classificação de Clima de Negócios
The business environment is good. When available, corporate financial information is reliable. Debt collection is reasonably efficient. Institutions generally perform efficiently. Intercompany transactions usually run smoothly in the relatively stable environment rated A2.
  • Mining (leading copper producer), agricultural, fishery, and forestry resources
  • Numerous free-trade agreements
  • Favorable business climate, political and institutional stability
  • International companies operating in distribution, air transport, and paper
  • Member of the OECD and the Pacific Alliance
  • Open economy, vulnerable to external shocks
  • Dependence on copper and the Chinese economy
  • Persistent external deficit
  • Vulnerability of the road network and electricity grid, and high energy prices
  • Exposure to weather and earthquake risks
  • Income disparity and poor education system

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