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The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the former British South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence. His chaotic land redistribution campaign, which began in 1997 and intensified after 2000, caused an exodus of white farmers, crippled the economy, and ushered in widespread shortages of basic commodities. Ignoring international condemnation, MUGABE rigged the 2002 presidential election to ensure his reelection.


Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia

Recursos Naturais

coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals

Distribuição da População

Aside from major urban agglomerations in Harare and Bulawayo, population distribution is fairly even, with slightly greater overall numbers in the eastern half

Shona (official; most widely spoken), Ndebele (official, second most widely spoken), English (official; traditionally used for official business), 13 minority languages (official; includes Chewa, Chibarwe, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Shangani, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa)
HARARE (capital) 1.501 million (2015)
Designação longa convencional
Republic of Zimbabwe
Forma longa local
Forma curto local
semi-presidential republic
Coordenadas Geográficas
17 49 S, 31 02 E
Fuso horário
UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Zimbabwe's economy depends heavily on its mining and agriculture sectors. Following a decade of contraction from 1998 to 2008, the economy recorded real growth of more than 10% per year in the period 2010-13, before slowing to roughly 4% in 2014 due to poor harvests, low diamond revenues, and decreased investment. Growth turned negative in 2016. Lower mineral prices, infrastructure and regulatory deficiencies, a poor investment climate, a large public and external debt burden, and extremely high government wage expenses impede the country’s economic performance.
Acções de dívida externa
US$ 8.734.861.000
Taxa de imposto total (% dos lucros empresa)
Taxa de juro real
Produção, valor acrescentado (% PIB)
Saldo Corrente
US$ -1.520.624.250
Força de trabalho, total
Emprego na Agricultura
Emprego na Industria
Emprego nos Serviços
Taxa de Desemprego
Importação de Produtos e Serviços
US$ 6.212.385.600
Exportação de Produtos e Serviços
US$ 3.637.965.500
Total Comércio de Mercadorias
IDE, entradas líquidas
US$ 399.200.000
Exportações de serviços comerciais
US$ 340.688.114
tobacco, corn, cotton, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; sheep, goats, pigs
mining (coal, gold, platinum, copper, nickel, tin, diamonds, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel; wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages
platinum, cotton, tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles/clothing
China 26.6%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 13.4%, South Africa 12.4%, Botswana 12% (2015)
machinery and transport equipment, other manufactures, chemicals, fuels, food products
South Africa 45.4%, China 12.4%, Zambia 6.1%, India 5.3% (2015)
Índice de Risco do País
The highest-risk political and economic situation and the most difficult business environment. Corporate default is likely.
Classificação de Clima de Negócios
The highest possible risk in terms of business climate. Due to a lack of available financial information and an unpredictable legal system, doing business in this country is extremely difficult.
  • Abundant mineral resources (platinum, gold, diamonds, nickel)
  • Agricultural wealth (maize, tobacco, cotton)
  • Tourist potential
  • Member of the SADC (Southern African Development Community)
  • Normalization of relations with the international community
  • Economic and financial situation destabilized by a long period of hyperinflation
  • Shortage of liquidity
  • Under-investment in infrastructure (energy in particular)
  • Unsustainable food and healthcare situations: The majority of the population is dependent on international aid
  • One of the highest rates of AIDS in Africa and the world

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