A non-negotiable contract for carriage of air transportation between an air carrier and a shipper.
The broadest form of coverage available, providing protection against all risk of physical loss or damage from any external cause. Does not cover loss or damage due to delay, inherent vice, inadequate packaging, or loss of market.
BAF (Bunker Adjustment Factor)
An adjustment in shipping charges to offset price fluctuations in the cost of fuel. Also known as a Bunker Surcharge (B/S). The word Bunker refers to fuel storage containers on a vessel.
Bill of Lading (B/L)
A document issued by a common carrier to a shipper that serves as:
1. A receipt for the goods delivered to the carrier for shipment.
2. A definition of the contract of carriage of the goods.
3. A Document of Title to the goods described therein.
4. This document is generally not negotiable unless consigned "to order."
Bill of Lading, On Board
A bill of lading acknowledging that the relative goods have been received on board a specified vessel.
Bill of Lading, Order
A negotiable bill of lading. There are two types:
1. A bill drawn to the order of a foreign consignee, enabling him to endorse the bill to a third party.
2. A bill of lading drawn to the order of the shipper and endorsed by him either "in blank" or to a named consignee. The purpose of the latter bill is to protect the shipper against the buyer's obtaining the merchandise before he has paid or accepted the relative draft.
A warehouse authorized by customs for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.
A vessel designed to handle large or oversized cargo; generally cargo unsuitable for container stowage.
Loose cargo that is loaded directly into a ship's hold.
There are two types of bulk carriers, the dry-bulk carrier and the liquid-bulk carrier, better known as a tanker. Bulk cargo is a shipment such as oil, grain, or one which is not packaged, bundled, bottled, or otherwise packed and is loaded without counting or marking.
CAD (Cash Against Documents)
A method of payment for goods in which documents transferring title are given to the buyer upon payment of cash to an intermediary acting for the seller.
CAF (Currency Adjustment Factor)
A surcharge on freight charges by a carrier to offset foreign currency fluctuations.
Insurance to protect the financial interest of the owner of the cargo in the event of a loss during transportation.
A customs document permitting the holder to carry or send merchandise temporarily into certain foreign countries without paying duties or posting bonds. All of the goods traveling under a Carnet must be returned to the origin country to avoid penalties.
Any person who, through a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway, or by a combination of modes.
Certificate of Manufacture
A document used under a letter of credit containing an affidavit that goods have been manufactured and are being held for the account and risk of the buyer.
Certificate of Origin
A document containing an affidavit to prove the origin of imported goods. It is used for customs or foreign exchange purposes or both. Certificates of Origin are commonly certified by an official organization in the country of origin such as a consular office or a chamber of commerce.
CFS (Container Freight Station)
The term CFS at loading port means the location designated by carriers for the receiving of cargo to be loaded into containers by the carrier. At discharge or destination ports, the term CFS means the bonded location designated by carriers for devanning of containerized cargo.
CFS/CFS (Pier to Pier)
The term CFS/CFS refers to cargo delivered at origin in less-than-containerload quantities to a container freight station (CFS) to be loaded into containers and to be unloaded from the container at destination CFS.
CFS Charge (Container Freight Station Charge)
The charge assessed for services performed at the origin or destination for loading or unloading of cargo into/from containers at a CFS.
CFS Receiving Services
The service performed at the loading port in receiving and packing cargo into containers from CFS to CY or shipside.
Rate for airfreight goods where dimensional weight factor exceeds the actual weight of the cargo.
Originally meant a flight where a shipper contracted hire of an aircraft from an air carrier, but has usually come to mean any non-scheduled commercial service.
A rectangular steel frame, supported by springs and wheeled axles constructed to accept mounting of containers for over-the-road transport.
CIA (Cash in Advance)
A method of payment for goods whereby the buyer pays the seller prior to shipping the goods.
A term for the determination of the correct tariff number in a Customs tariff for admissibility and duty purposes.
A type of ship that accommodates both container and break-bulk cargo. It can be either self-sustaining or non-self sustaining. Also known as a Container/Break-bulk Vessel.
Receipt for a transaction and or goods purchased (invoice) indicating the sender or seller and the receiver or purchaser. A commercial invoice should contain an itemized list of the merchandise with the complete description of goods with their unit value and extended total value. Depending on the Customs requirements of the destination country, there may be additional requirements, statement or clauses that must appear as well.
A group of vessel operators joined together for the purpose of establishing freight rates.
The individual or company to whom a seller or shipper sends merchandise and who, upon presentation of necessary documents, is recognized as the merchandise owner for the purpose of declaring and paying customs duties.
A term used to describe any person who consigns goods to himself or to another party in a bill of lading or equivalent document. A consignor might be the owner of the goods, or a freight forwarder who consigns goods on behalf of his principal.
A method of shipping whereby an agent (freight forwarder or consolidator) combines individual consignments from various shippers into one shipment made to a destination agent, for the benefit of preferential rates. (Also called "groupage") The consolidation is then de-consolidated by the destination agent into its original component consignments and made available to consignees. Consolidation provides shippers access to better rates than would be otherwise attainable.
An agent who brings together a number of shipments for one destination to qualify for preferential rates.
Special forms signed by the consular office of a country to which cargo is destined.
A document required by some countries describing a shipment of goods and showing information such as the consignor, consignee, and value of the shipment. Certified by a consular official, a consular invoice is used by the country's customs officials to verify the value, quantity, and nature of the shipment.
A draft that matures in a specified number of days after issuance without regard to date of acceptance.
Destination Delivery Charge.
DDP (Delivered Duty Paid)
Also known as "free domicile" or "free house."
DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid)
This reflects the emergence of "door-to-door" intermodal or courier contracts or carriage where only the destination customs duty and taxes (if any) are paid by consignee.
Freight charges paid by the charterer of a vessel for the contracted space which is left partially unoccupied.
Cargo carried on deck rather than stowed under deck. On-deck carriage is required for certain commodities, such as explosives.
A penalty for exceeding free time allowed for loading or unloading at a pier or freight terminal. Also a charge for undue detention of transportation equipment or carriers in port while loading or unloading.
Weight units per unit of volume.
Dim Weight (Dimensional Weight)
An airfreight term used to describe the results of computing the chargeable weight from the cubic measurement of a shipment.
An unconditional order in writing from one person (the Drawer) to another (the Drawee), directing the drawee to pay a specified amount to a named drawer on presentation or on a fixed date.
The individual or firm on whom a draft is drawn and who owes the stated amount to the drawer.
EDI or EDIFACT (Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport)
From the United Nations-backed electronic data interchange standards body, this is a set of standards that are used to define data sets in certain documents to standardize them for electronic transmission from one format to another.
Endorsement in Blank
1. Commonly used on a bank check, an endorsement in blank is an endorsement to the bearer. It contains only the name of the endorser and specifies no particular payee.
2. Also, a common means of endorsing bills of lading dawn to the order of the shipper.
A document secured from a government, authorizing a shipper to export a specific quantity of a particular commodity to a certain country. An export license is often required when a government places restrictions upon exports.
A corporation or other business entity organized and operated primarily for the purpose of exporting goods and services, or of providing export-related services to other companies.
Full Container Load, Full Car Load.
A vessel that connects with a line vessel to service a port not directly served by that line vessel.
Term normally used in ocean freight rate negotiations referring to the equivalent of two twenty foot ocean containers.
International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations.
An airline or vessel of one national registry whose government gives it partial or total monopoly over international routes.
Flat Bed Chassis
A semi-trailer with a level bed and no sides or tops. The floor is a standard height from the ground.
A platform designed with the flexibility to carry oversized cargo on board container vessels. It can be loaded from the sides and top, usually having adjustable or removable bulkheads at the front and back.
The title of a standard clause found in marine contracts exempting the parties for non-fulfillment of their obligations by reasons of occurrences beyond their control, such as earthquakes, floods, or war.
Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ)
A port designated by the government for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, and used for manufacturing within the zone and re-exported without duties being paid. Duties are imposed only when the original goods or items manufactured from those goods pass from the zone into an area of the country subject to customs authority. Also called a Free Trade Zone.
Foreign Trade Zone Entry
A form declaring goods which are brought duty free into a Foreign Trade Zone for further processing or storage and subsequent exportation from the zone into the commerce of another country.
Forwarder, Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder
An independent business that dispatches shipments for exporters for a fee. The firm may ship by land, air, or sea, or it may specialize. Usually it handles all the services connected with an export shipment, including preparation of documents, booking cargo space, warehousing, pier delivery, and export clearance. The firm may also handle banking and insurance services on behalf of a client.
Free of Particular Average (FPA)
A marine insurance clause relating to the recoverability of partial and total losses from perils of the sea. The American and English coverage's vary as follows:
1. American Conditions (FPAAC). The underwriter does not assume responsibility for partial losses unless caused by sinking, stranding, burning, or colliding with another vessel.
2. English Conditions (FPAEC). The underwriter assumes responsibility for partial losses if the vessel is sunk, stranded, burned, on fire, or in collision, even though such an event did not actually cause the damage suffered by the goods.
Free Out (FO)
The cost of unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer.
A port which is a Foreign Trade Zone open to all traders on equal terms, or more specifically a port where merchandise may he stored duty-free pending re-export or sale within that country.
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)
A multilateral treaty intended to help reduce trade barriers and promote tariff concessions.
Gross Weight (GR Wt./GW)
The full weight of a shipment, including containers and packaging materials.
Gross Weight (GR Wt./GW)
An internationally accepted and uniform description system for classifying goods for customs, statistical, and other purposes.
Harmonized System (HS)
A key provision of the international trade bill, effective January 1, 1989, that established international uniformity for classifying goods moving in international trade under a single commodity code.
Hi (or High) Cube
Any container exceeding 102 inches in height.
House Air Waybill
An air waybill issued by an airfreight consolidator.
International Air Transport Association.
ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization)
A specialized agency of the United Nations headquartered in Montreal. It promotes general development of civil aviation such as aircraft design and operation, safety procedures, and contractual agreements.
ICC (International Chamber of Commerce)
A non-governmental organization serving as a policy advocate on world business.
A contoured structural container designed for use in main-deck carriage on narrow body aircraft.
A certificate issued by countries exercising import controls that permits importation of the articles stated in the license and often authorizes and/or releases the funds in payment of the importation.
A term use to describe cargo that has not been cleared by Customs to enter the commerce of a country.
Language is one of the most complex and important tools of International Trade. As in any complex and sophisticated business, small changes in wording can have a major impact on all aspects of a business agreement.
Word definitions often differ from industry to industry. This is especially true of global trade. Where such fundamental phrases as "delivery" can have a far different meaning in the business than in the rest of the world.
For business terminology to be effective, phrases must mean the same thing throughout the industry. That is why the International Chamber of Commerce created "INCOTERMS" in 1936.
INCOTERMS are designed to create a bridge between different members of the industry by acting as a uniform language they can use.
Each Incoterm refers to a type of agreement for the purchase and shipping of goods internationally. There are 11 different terms, each of which helps users deal with different situations involving the movement of goods. For example, the term FCA is often used with shipments involving Ro/Ro or container transport.
Incoterms also deal with the documentation required for global trade, specifying which parties are responsible for which documents. Determining the paperwork required to move a shipment is an important job, since requirements vary so much between countries. Two items, however, are standard: the commercial invoice and the packing list.
Incoterms were created primarily for people inside the world of global trade. Outsiders frequently find them difficult to understand. Seemingly common words such as "responsibility" and "delivery" have different meanings in global trade than they do in other situations.
Incoterms can thus have a direct financial impact on a company's business. What is important is not the acronyms, but the business results. Often companies like to be in control of their freight. That being the case, sellers of goods might choose to sell CIF, which gives them a good grasp of shipments moving out of their country, and buyers may prefer to purchase FOB, which gives them a tighter hold on goods moving into their country.
In this glossary, we'll tell you what terms such as CIF and FOB mean and their impact on the trade process. In addition, since we realize that most international buyers and sellers do not handle goods themselves, but work through customs brokers and freight forwarders, we'll discuss how both fit into the terms under discussion.
Incoterms are most frequently listed by category. Terms beginning with F refer to shipments where the primary cost of shipping is not paid for by the seller. Terms beginning with C deal with shipments where the seller pays for shipping. E-terms occur when a seller's responsibilities are fulfilled when goods are ready to depart from their facilities. D terms cover shipments where the shipper/seller's responsibility ends when the goods arrive at some specific point. Because shipments are moving into a country, D terms usually involve the services of a customs broker and a freight forwarder. In addition, D terms also deal with the pier or docking charges found at virtually all ports and determining who is responsible for each charge.
Recently the ICC changed basic aspects of the definitions of a number of INCOTERMS, buyers and sellers should be aware of this. Terms that have changed have a star alongside them.
One of the simplest and most basic shipment arrangements places the minimum responsibility on the seller with greater responsibility on the buyer. In an EX-Works transaction, goods are basically made available for pickup at the shipper/seller's factory or warehouse and "delivery" is accomplished when the merchandise is released to the consignee's freight forwarder. The buyer is responsible for making arrangements with their forwarder for insurance, export clearance and handling all other paperwork.
FOB (Free On Board)
One of the most commonly used-and misused-terms, FOB means that the shipper/seller uses his freight forwarder to move the merchandise to the port or designated point of origin. Though frequently used to describe inland movement of cargo, FOB specifically refers to ocean or inland waterway transportation of goods. "Delivery" is accomplished when the shipper/seller releases the goods to the buyer's forwarder. The buyer's responsibility for insurance and transportation begins at the same moment.
FCA (Free Carrier)
In this type of transaction, the seller is responsible for arranging transportation, but he is acting at the risk and the expense of the buyer. Where in FOB the freight forwarder or carrier is the choice of the buyer, in FCA the seller chooses and works with the freight forwarder or the carrier. "Delivery" is accomplished at a predetermined port or destination point and the buyer is responsible for Insurance.
FAS (Free Alongside Ship)
In these transactions, the buyer bears all the transportation costs and the risk of loss of goods. FAS requires the shipper/seller to clear goods for export, which is a reversal from past practices. Companies selling on these terms will ordinarily use their freight forwarder to clear the goods for export. "Delivery" is accomplished when the goods are turned over to the Buyers Forwarder for insurance and transportation.
CFR (Cost and Freight)
This term formerly known as CNF (C&F) defines two distinct and separate responsibilities-one is dealing with the actual cost of merchandise "C" and the other "F" refers to the freight charges to a predetermined destination point. It is the shipper/seller's responsibility to get goods from their door to the port of destination. "Delivery" is accomplished at this time. It is the buyer's responsibility to cover insurance from the port of origin or port of shipment to buyer's door. Given that the shipper is responsible for transportation, the shipper also chooses the forwarder.
CIF (Chost, Insurance and Freight)
This arrangement similar to CFR, but instead of the buyer insuring the goods for the maritime phase of the voyage, the shipper/seller will insure the merchandise. In this arrangement, the seller usually chooses the forwarder. "Delivery" as above, is accomplished at the port of destination.
CPT (Carriage Paid To)
In CPT transactions the shipper/seller has the same obligations found with CIF, with the addition that the seller has to buy cargo insurance, naming the buyer as the insured while the goods are in transit.
CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To)
This term is primarily used for multimodal transport. Because it relies on the carrier's insurance, the shipper/seller is only required to purchase minimum coverage. When this particular agreement is in force, Freight Forwarders often act in effect, as carriers. The buyer's insurance is effective when the goods are turned over to the Forwarder.
DAT (Delivered At Terminal)
This term is used for any type of shipments. The shipper/seller pays for carriage to the terminal, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks up to the point that the goods are unloaded at the terminal.
DAP (Delivered At Place)
DAP term is used for any type of shipments. The shipper/seller pays for carriage to the named place, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks prior to the point that the goods are ready for unloading by the buyer.
DDP (Delivered Duty Paid)
DDP term tend to be used in intermodal or courier-type shipments. Whereby, the shipper/seller is responsible for dealing with all the tasks involved in moving goods from the manufacturing plant to the buyer/consignee's door. It is the shipper/seller's responsibility to insure the goods and absorb all costs and risks including the payment of duty and fees.
When steamship lines publish in their schedules the name of a port and the words "by inducement" in parentheses, this means the vessel will call at the port if there is a sufficient amount of profitable cargo available and booked.
A transportation line which hauls export or import cargo between ports and inland points.
A document certifying that merchandise was in good condition, or in accordance with certain specifications immediately prior to shipment.
A forwarder that uses its own aircraft, whether owned or leased, rather than scheduled airlines.
A mutual agreement between airlines to link their route network.
This refers to the capacity to go from ship to train to truck or the like. The term generally refers to containerized shipping or the capacity to handle containers across different modes of transport.
A series of voluntary international quality standards.
A term of business partnership involving joint management and the sharing of risks and profits between enterprises sometimes based in different countries.
Just in Time (JIT)
The principle of production and inventory control in which goods arrive when needed for production or use.
The unit of speed equivalent to one nautical mile: 6,080.20 feet per hour or 1.85 kilometers per hour.
Less than Container Load; Less than Car load.
Loss and Damage.
The weight of the goods plus any immediate wrappings or packagings that are sold along with the goods, e.g., the weight of a tin can as well as its contents.
Less than Truckload (LTL)
Rates applicable when the quantity of freight is less than the volume or truckload minimum weight.
Letter of Credit (L/C)
A document issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms. Issued as revocable or irrevocable.
Letter of Credit, Confirmed
A letter of credit containing a guarantee on the part of both the issuing and advising banks of payment to the seller, provided the seller's documentation is in order and the terms of the letter of credit are met.
An open or covered barge equipped with a crane and towed by a tugboat. Used mostly in harbors and inland waterways.
The word "liner" is derived from the term "line traffic," which denotes operation along definite routes on the basis of definite, fixed schedules. A liner thus is a vessel that engages in this kind of transportation, which usually involves the haulage of general cargo as distinct from bulk cargo.
Capacity used as against capacity available and expressed as a percentage.
The efficient and cost-effective management of the physical movement of goods from supply points to final sale and the associated transfer and holding of such goods at various intermediate storage points.
Denotes the method by which cargo is loaded onto and discharged from an ocean vessel, which in this case is by the use of a crane.
The measurement ton (also known as the cargo ton or freight ton) is a space measurement, usually 40 cubic feet or one cubic meter. Cargo is assessed a certain rate for every 40 cubic feet or one cubic meter it occupies.
A trade alliance between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, with Chile and Bolivia as associate members.
M/T or Metric Ton
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)
A free trade agreement comprising the U.S.A., Canada, and Mexico.
A flag carrier owned or controlled by the state.
Free of charter's commission.
Net Weight (Actual Net Weight)
The weight of the goods alone without any immediate wrappings; e.g., the weight of the contents of a tin can without the weight of the can.
Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC)
In the United States, a term for an FMC-Iicensed cargo consolidator of shipments in ocean trade, generally arranging for or performing consolidation and containerization functions. In trade lanes that do not include the U.S.A., NVOCC's operate under different rules and governmental licensing may not be a requirement.
Not Otherwise Specified.
A trade arrangement in which goods are shipped to a foreign buyer without guarantee of payment such as a note, L/C, or other formal written evidence of indebtedness.
A cargo insurance policy that is an open contract; e.g., it provides protection for all shipments in transit within a specified geographic trade area for a limited period of time. It is referred to as "open" because it does not require reporting of individual shipments. Summary or grouped reporting requirements vary with different policies.
Where part of an airline's scheduled flight is sold as if it were a charter in its own right. Often incorrectly used as a synonym for split charter.
Part Load Charter
Where a part of an aircraft's load is discharged at one destination and a part of it at another. This is distinct from a split charter where a number of consignments are carried to the same destination. Inbound, part loads are treated as single entity charters under the regulations in most countries.
Particular Average (PA)
Partial loss or damage to goods.
Perils of the Sea
Fortuitous accidents or casualties peculiar to transportation on navigable water, such as sinking, collision of vessel, striking a submerged object, or encountering heavy weather or other unusual forces of nature.
Any cargo that loses considerable value if it is delayed in transportation. This usually refers to fresh fruit and vegetables.
Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate
A certificate issued by an exporting countries' Department of Agriculture indicating that a shipment has been inspected and is free of harmful pests and plant diseases.
As used in marine insurance policies, the term denotes petty thievery-the taking of small parts of a shipment-as opposed to the theft of a whole shipment or large unit. Many ordinary marine insurance policies do not cover against pilferage, and when this coverage is desired it must be added to the policy.
An identifying set of letters, numbers, or geometric symbols followed by the name of the port of destination that are placed on export shipments. Foreign government requirements may be exceedingly strict in the matter of port marks.
Port of Discharge
A port where a vessel is off-loaded and cargo discharged.
Port of Entry
A port at which foreign goods are admitted into the receiving country.
Port of Loading
A port where cargo is loaded aboard the vessel, lashed, and stowed.
Generally speaking, freight charges both in ocean and air transport may be either prepaid in the currency of the country of export or they may be billed collect for payment by the consignee in his local currency. On shipments to some countries, however, freight charges must be prepaid because of foreign exchange regulations of the country of import or rules of steamship companies or airlines.
A Latin term frequently encountered in foreign trade that means "on first appearance." When a steamship company issues a clean bill of lading, it acknowledges that the goods were received "in apparent good order and condition" and this is said by the courts to constitute prima facie evidence of the conditions of the containers; that is, if nothing to the contrary appears, it must be inferred that the cargo was in good condition when received by the carrier.
Proof of Delivery (POD)
The delivery receipt copy of a freight bill indicating the name of the person who signed for a package with the date and time of delivery.
A refrigerated container, trailer or railcar for transporting perishables.
Ro/Ro (Roll-on/Roll-Off) Vessel
A ship designed to accommodate cargo that is rolled on and rolled off. Many Ro/Ro vessels can also accommodate containers and/or break-bulk cargo.
An established passage, from the point of departure to the terminating station.
An instrument in writing containing a list of the shipments constituting the ship's cargo.
Freight tendered to a carrier by one consignor at one place at one time for delivery to one consignee at one place on one bill of lading.
Term used to describe an exporter (usually the seller).
Cargo manifested but not loaded.
A draft payable upon presentation to the drawee.
A duly appointed and authorized representative in a specified territory acting on behalf of a steamship line or lines and attending to all matters relating to the vessels owned by his principals.
A company usually having the following departments: vessel operations, container operations, tariff department, booking, outbound rates, inward rates, and sales. The company can maintain its own in-country offices to handle regional sales, operations, or other matters, or appoint steamship agents to represent them doing the same. Some lines have liner offices in several regions and appointed agents in others.
The lading of cargo in a vessel in such a manner as to provide the utmost safety and efficiency for the ship and the goods it carries.
Strikes, Riots and Civil Commotion's
An insurance clause referring to loss or damage directly caused by strikers, locked-out workmen, persons' participation in labor disturbances, and riots of various kinds. The ordinary marine insurance policy does not cover this risk. Coverage against it can be added only by endorsement.
Sue & Labor Cause
A provision in marine insurance obligating the assured to do things necessary after a loss to prevent further loss and to act in the best interests of the insurer.
The weight of packing and containers without the goods to be shipped.
A general term for any listing of rates or charges. The tariffs most frequently encountered in foreign trade are: tariffs of international transportation companies operating on sea, land, and in the air; tariffs of international cable, radio, and telephone companies; and the customs tariffs of the various countries that list goods that are duty free and those subject to import duty, giving the rate of duty in each case. There are various classes of customs duties.
Temperature Controlled Cargo
Any cargo requiring carriage under controlled temperature.
A twenty-foot equivalent unit (6.1m). A standard unit for counting containers of various lengths and for describing container ship or terminal capacity. A standard 40' container (FEU) equals 2 TEUs.
THC (Terminal Handling Charge)
A charge for handling services performed at terminals.
A draft that matures in a certain number of days, either from acceptance or the date of the draft.
Freight rates for liner cargo generally are quoted on the basis of a certain rate per ton, depending on the nature of the commodity. This ton, however, may be a weight ton or a measurement ton.
The carrying capacity of the ship in terms of the weight in tons of the cargo, fuel, provisions, and passengers which a vessel can carry.
A system of recording movement intervals of shipments from origin to destination.
The transfer of a shipment from one carrier to another in international trade, most frequently from one ship to another. Because the unloading and reloading of delicate merchandise may cause damage, transshipments are avoided whenever possible.
Additional transportation charges assessed shippers who declare a value of goods higher than the value of carriers' limits of liability.
An international airfreight term used to describe the results of computing the chargeable weight from the cubic measurement of a shipment.
The possible aggressive actions against a ship and its cargo by a belligerent government. This risk can be insured by a marine policy with a risk clause.
War Risk Insurance
Insurance issued by marine underwriters against war-like operations specifically described in the policy. In former times, war risk insurance was taken out only in times of war, but currently many exporters cover most of their shipments with war risk insurance as a protection against losses from derelict torpedoes and floating mines placed during former wars, and also as a safeguard against unforeseen warlike developments. In the U.S.A., war risk insurance is written in a separate policy from the ordinary marine insurance; it is desirable to take out both policies with the same underwriter in order to avoid the ill effects of a possible dispute between underwriters as to the cause (marine peril or war peril) of a given loss.
A receipt of commodities deposited in a warehouse identifying the commodities deposited. It is non-negotiable if permitting delivery only to a specified person or firm, but it is negotiable if made out to the order of a person or firm or to a bearer. Endorsement (without endorsement if made out to bearer) and delivery of a negotiable warehouse receipt serves to transfer the property covered by the receipt. Warehouse receipts are common documents in international banking.
A clause in marine insurance policy whereby the underwriter agrees to cover the goods while in transit between the initial point of shipment and the point of destination with certain limitations, and also subject to the law of insurable interest. The warehouse-to-warehouse clause was once extremely important, but marine extension clauses now often override its provisions.
• Gross - The weight of the goods including packing, wrappers, or containers, both internal and external. The total weight as shipped.
• Net - The weight of the goods themselves without the inclusion of any wrapper.
• Tare - The weight of the packaging or container.
• Weight/Measurement Ton - In many cases, a rate is shown per weight/measurement ton, carrier's option. This means that the rate will be assessed on either a weight ton or measurement ton basis, whichever will yield the carrier the greater revenue.
• Weight Ton - Metric measure equals 1000 Kilograms; in English measure a short ton is 2000 pounds, a long ton is 2240 pounds.
Weight Load Factor
Payload achieved as against available capacity, expressed as a percentage. Cargo is frequently limited by volume rather than weight; load factors of 100 percent are rarely achieved.
With Average (WA)
A marine insurance term meaning that shipment is protected for partial damage whenever the damage exceeds a stated percentage.
With Particular Average (WPA)
An insurance term meaning that partial loss or damage of goods is insured. The damage generally must be caused by sea water, and many terms specify a minimum percentage of damage before payment. It may be extended to cover loss by theft, pilferage, leakage and breakage, or other perils depending on the nature of the cargo.
Weight and/or Measurement.